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The years between to witnessed a rapid growth in the use of electric light and with it significant improvements in the design of light sockets. An understanding of what these changes were and when they occurred provides a valuable tool for dating early electric lamps. This discussion will gloss over internal modifications and focus on the external appearance, as this aspect is the most useful for on-the-spot assessments. Although Edison invented the first functional electric light bulb inmore than 20 years would pass before his revolutionary device was practical enough to be embraced this web page dating lamp cords mass consuming public.
In fact, early electrical systems were exorbitantly expensive to install and to maintain, as well as subject to frustrating service interruptions and frightening power surges.
During this formative period, Edison's DC direct current system dominated the market and his "Bergmann" socket was the prototypical design. The first real challenge to Edison's dating lamp cords came with the inauguration of Westinghouse's AC alternating current system in The Thompson-Houston Co. This shell design was the standard untilwhen Philip Lange patented an improvement that did away with the expensive solid brass cap of the earlier model.
Lange's patent utilized a sheet metal cap with a small strap across the inside go here anchor the 2 screws that held the socket shell together and the internal body in place.
It was soon adopted by most suppliers and would remain a ubiquitous feature of mainstream socket architecture for the next 20 years. The Lange socket of the https://dogguru.xyz/magazines/top-online-dating-sites-philippines.php was basically cylindrical in shape with an angular cap whose lower edge covered the top of the socket tube.
Switched models were equipped with a flat paddle that might or might not have the company's logo impressed in it. Because the electric market was still small, not a lot of these Lange sockets dating lamp cords made and they are somewhat of a rarity today. By the end of the decade, however, the use of electric light had grown to such an extent that the electrical companies were motivated to look for ways to reduce the cost of manufacturing sockets and improve dating good sites lesbian safety features.
In they introduced their first Edison screw base socket for AC use. The design, which was patented by J. Tournier, featured an improved switch design housed in a Lange shell. Tournier's switch was ingeniously simple, but it took up more space than the older Lange-type switches, necessitating an increase in the diameter of the upper half of the shell. The socket also featured a domical cap and a flat switch paddle with the GECo logo molded into it.
By aroundmost of the other manufacturers, which numbered about 20 dating lamp cords this point, had adopted the new switch design and shell shape, bringing out their own versions with their name imprinted on the switch paddle. One frustrating aspect of the market during this period was dating lamp cords variety dating on earth full izle turkce electrical systems in use.
All of the major electric companies dating lamp cords come up with their own complete system of components, which included proprietary methods of securing the light bulb in its socket. Of course, bulbs from one system would not fit the https://dogguru.xyz/magazines/dating-me-survival-kit.php of any other system and, while every company claimed their method was superior, their motive for exclusivity was arguably to keep their customers captive.
That year the industry decided to settle on the Edison screw base as their standard and to gradually phase out the other systems. Sockets to fit the non-Edison systems continued to be manufactured for another 3 or 4 years, but by they had pretty much been obsoleted. We mention this bit of history because occasionally you will come upon sockets with these odd receptacles.
As one might expect, they are quite common among the s Lange-style sockets, but only rarely found on the later Tournier types. The Thompson-Houston version is the one most often encountered today because it could be fitted with a simple adaptor to accept an Edison bulb. This contributed to its survival, while all of the others eventually had to be replaced and were usually discarded as useless.
Like their predecessors, the earliest versions of the Tournier socket had no full insulating liner and relied on the two screws and a fiber sleeve around the front of the screw thread to separate the body from the shell and prevent electrical shorts. An alternative design replaced the fiber sleeve with a removable hard rubber collar that screwed onto the screw thread. Both of these styles lacked the circular mica insulator under the central contact.
As early ashowever, concerns about electrical safety led the NBFU to recommend adding the mica disk and a full insulating liner to both the shell tube and cap, and over the next few years these measures were gradually phased in. Small improvements to the Tournier configuration continued to be made all through the decade of the s and there are many minor variations in shell shape and length. It should also be noted that, during this period, several other socket styles were also in general use—especially the keyless Acorn and Electrolier varieties.
Inthe Perkins Co. Thus it is not uncommon to find a Just click for source body in a Bryant Tournier shell and vice versa, and both seeming mismatches are legitimate.
InBryant changed the shape of both the Perkins and Bryant switch paddles to a straight rectangle, doing away with the arched top and curved lettering. GE continued to use their curved version until about Through the decade of the s, the Lange 2-screw system of shell joinery remained the market standard, although it increasingly came to be perceived as both too expensive go here manufacture and too troublesome to install.
None of these attempts, however, worked very well and they were all fairly short-lived. This new configuration featured dating lamp cords ring of 20 louvered slots around the top of the brass shell tube and a corresponding ring of perforations around the inside of the cap rim.
This allowed the two parts to dating lamp cords securely joined by simply pushiing the tube into the cap and snapping it in place, a method that greatly facilitated the job of installing sockets inside husks. In addition, the 20 louvers permitted the socket tube to be locked in 20 different positions, eliminating the need to secure the cap at just the right angle so that the paddle would be pointing in the right direction.
The earliest versions of the New Wrinkle socket click here the rectangular slots around the rim of the cap exposed on the outside, but this was quickly deemed unsightly and within a year they added on a metal collar to hide the slots.
Many continued to offer their Lange-type sockets for a few more years, but by they had pretty much disappeared from the market. The next significant change in socket design came around with the introduction of the UNO fitter. Prior to that time, all louvered sockets still followed the old Lange design of including a raised bead around the bottom please click for source the tube to strengthen it.
Shade fitters were added to the socket by means of a complicated little screw clamp that was mounted over this bead. InBryant came up with the idea of replacing the bead on the socket tube with a ring of dating lamp cords threads that would accept accept their new screw-on "UNO" shade fitter.
From on, all of the other manufacturers adopted the UNO threaded tube and began to phase out their beaded version as redundant. By all the major producers had also replaced their block letter script on the paddle with dating lamp cords more decorative logo. The technical developments we have outlined so far apply to switchless sockets as well as to the rotary switch "paddle" types.
Pull chain sockets evolved from a totally separate source. The first pull-chain socket was introduced in by Harvey Hubbell, who was trying to address a serious shortcoming of the keyed socket. Keyed sockets often had to be installed in hidden locations such as inside a dome shadewhich made accessing the switch paddle difficult.
Impatient consumers often wound up groping around inside the shade, a careless practice that could result in an electric shock.
The tuna line protected the user from shocks, but it was found to wear out and break too easily, so Hubbell went back to the drawing board. In he patented an improved version now with the wider Tournier-type shell that accomplished the insulation internally and allowed him to use learn more here stronger brass ball chain pull. Hubbell jealously guarded his patent and, for the first few years at least, granted no licenses.
Around pull-chain sockets began to appear in the catalogs of other manufacturers- with Hubbell's acorn pull, but they were apparently not as well received since they are rarely seen today. While the pull-chain socket was a big convenience for consumers, Hubbel's design represented a big headache for lighting manufacturers.
The attached chain guide and the need to feed mate age dating ur chain through it during assembly made for a difficult and frustrating operation. This neatly resolved the assembly problem and at the same time allowed the works to be housed in the same shell as their turn key version. The two companies may have click at this page rights to their patents, because around Hubbell also started offering the louvered shell.
In the first Bryant pull-chain sockets, the chain guide was attached to the body with two small dating lamp cords, but this was soon replaced by a simpler clip-in arrangement that featured two curved prongs on the detachable chain guide. This latter configuration was preferred by all of the other manufacturers, who added on their own distinctive pulls in the shape of balls, tassels, bells and the like.
All subsequent changes to the pull-chain socket basically paralleled those to the turn-key style. The electric attachment plug was really a minor item in the years before the turn of the century. Up until around the time that Edison's screw base was accepted as the industry latino speed dating nyc, there was very little need for plugs, because electric use was generally limited to hanging fixtures and sconces, which were "hard" wired and did not need to be plugged in.
The arrival of the electric portable along with a plethora of home appliances after generated a need for a way to temporarily tap into the house current. The electric sockets in fixtures and sconces offered the only convenient access to power at the time, and the Edison Attachment Plug was enlisted to exploit this source.
The familiar baseboard outlets and pronged dating lamp cords of today were actually around in a somewhat different form as early asbut their use was hindered by the difficulty of installing outlets in existing residences. Hubbell introduced the first click the following article pronged plugs inbut again, due to installation problems, there was not a big market for them.
Thereafter, reliance on the Edison screw-in plug steadily declined, until by the mids it survived only in older un-modernized homes. The early Spartan-type plugs were molded in hard rubber, which makes them relatively heavy and dense. Aroundmanufacturers switched over to injected plastic, which is thinner, lighter and retains a glossier surface.
There were many styles of plugs made, but the dome-shaped varieties like those pictured above were the ones dating lamp cords commonly installed on portable electric lamps. Edison "Bergmann" Socket, to Four Pre Thompson-Houston style Sockets.